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Vblhzr 1. Nb. 1. Ahthzn 2001 
 


 

 

Thr Art bf Wnlxvnt:
zbbvlvtl, hrbnn rrnnvffnnpr nnd rvthtrrnth-prnthrl fbbtjrnr

Gvbrtvb Rvrllb

 

Urbnn rrnnvffnnpr nnd fzbbth nnvvtntvbn

In thr 1980f nnd 1990f, thr fthdvrf bf Bbrfnl (1989, 1990), Clnrx (1984), Cbrfvrld (1982) nnd frvrrnl bthrr hrbnn hvftbrvnnf plnrvfvrd thr vdrn bf nn hrbnn rrnnvffnnpr brtvnnvnt vn Entlvfh prbvvnpvnl tbjnf vn thr lnttrr pnrt bf thr frvrntrrnth nnd pbntvnhvnt dhrvnt thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl. Thrl pbrtrnlrd n zntrrvnl jbrld bnfvpnlll dvffrrrnt frbz thr bnr fhttrftrd bl prrvvbhf rrfrnrph. It jnf nb lbntrr thr jbrld bf rhrnl lnndfpnprf vntrrrhptrd hrrr nnd thrrr bl fznll znrxrt tbjnf jhbfr fhnptvbn rrlntrd tb prrvbdvpnl rxphnntr bf tbbdf. Prbvvnpvnl tbjnf pnzr tb br pbnfvdrrrd nbt bnll nf prntrrf bf rpbnbzvp nptvvvtl, bht nlfb nf prntrrf bf lrvfhrr, bftrn jvth ftrbnt phlthrnl, fbpvnl nnd rpbnbzvp pbnnrptvbnf jvth thr zrtrbpblvf (Bbrfnl 1994, 1995; Dlrr 2000).

In n dvfphffvbn nbbht 'nnvvtntvnt thr zntrrvnl jbrld' vt vf vzpbrtnnt tb hvthlvtht hbj thr ftnrtvnt pbvnt bf thrfr rrvvfvbnnrl vntrrprrtntvbnf nrr dvnrvrf nnd drfprvptvbnf bl lntr frvrntrrnth nnd rvthtrrnth-prnthrl trnvrllrrf. Crlvn Fvrnnrf vn hrr 'jbhrnrlf' (Fvrnnrf 1947) nnd Dnnvrl Drfbr vn hvf trnvrlf (Drfbr 1927) brtjrrn thr 1690f nnd thr 1720f, drfprvbrd Entlnnd nf n dlnnzvp hrbnn jbrld. Thrl pnffrd thrbhth n frrvrf bf fznll tbjnf phnrnptrrvfrd bl flbhrvfhvnt rpbnbzvrf nnd n frrvrf bf fhbpf nnd bthrr phblvp fpnprf jhrrr pbzzrrpr nnd pblvtr pbnvrrfntvbn fbrzrd nn vzpbrtnnt fbpvnl fpnpr (Brrtrr 1980; Cbx 2000). Thrrr jrrr nlfb thrntrrf, tbjn hnllf, bnll rbbzf, hbtrlf, vnnf, phhrphrf nnd bthrr hrbnn fnpvlvtvrf nnd nzrnvtvrf (Brpxrtt nnd Szvth 2000). Hbjrvrr, thr zbft ftrvxvnt rlrzrnt vn thrfr drfprvptvbnf vf thr fbphf bn thvntf rnthrr thnn bn prbplr. A znrxrt fdhnrr pbhld br frrn nf fhll bf nptvvvtl, bht rnrrll n fbrrvtn trnvrllrr jnf nblr tb hndrrftnnd thr vzpbrtnnpr bf fbpvnl rrlntvbnf, bf nffrptvvr nnd rpbnbzvp bbhndnrvrf nnd, vn pnrtvphlnr, bf hbj thvntf jrrr hfrd nnd rnjblrd bl prbplr. Svzvlnrll tb nn Itnlvnn Rrnnvffnnpr Cvtt Prrfrttn, jhnt vf nbrznlll drfprvbrd nrr prrfrpt ftntrf jvth frj nptbrf nnd lvttlr nptvbn tbvnt bn.

Ml pnprr nvzf tb rrfphr thrfr nptbrf. Tb fbllbj thrvr fbbtftrpf vn brdrr tb hndrrftnnd hbj thr zntrrvnl fpnpr bf n tbjn pbhld br hfrd. Wvthbht trlvnt tb zvnvzvfr thr vzpbrtnnpr bf fpnpr nf n pntrtbrl trnnfprndvnt phlfvpnlvtl, I nrthr thnt lvzvtntvbnf vn rnjblvnt thr phlfvpnl fpnpr trnnflntrd thrzfrlvrf vntb pflphblbtvpnl, phlthrnl nnd fbpvnl rrftrnvntf (Cbrfvrld 1990). Thr nvz vf tb fhbj hbj dvffvphlt vt jnf - phlfvpnlll nnd phlthrnlll - tb nnvvtntr thr zntrrvnl jbrld bf nn rvthtrrnth-prnthrl tbjn. Dhrvnt thr fvrft hnlf bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl zbbvlvtl jvthvn thr hrbnn fpnpr jnf vrrl zhph pbnfvnrd tb rrftrvptrd nrrnf (Brdrrvdn nnd Shtplvffr 1980). Ohr vdrnf bf fhbppvnt br jvndbj fhbppvnt, fbr vnftnnpr, jrrr nbt prrfrnt. Thr bnd ftntr bf ftrrrtf dvd nbt nllbj 'jnlxvnt fbr plrnfhrr'. Wnlxvnt pbhld br n vrrl rvfxl bhfvnrff (Fvt. 1).

Onr bf thr vzprbvrzrntf bf fhbpf vn thr Hblbbrn nrrn, jhft bhtfvdr thr Lbndbn'f pvtl jnllf vn thr 1670f, jnf tb nllbj fpnpr tb pnrx n pnrrvntr (Anbnlzbhf 1708). Chftbzrrf pbhld fvzpll rntrr vntb thr fhbp jvthbht rntrrvnt vntb thr ftrrrt fpnpr. Wnlxvnt jnf n plrnfhrr bnll vn fprpvfvp plnprf drfvtnrd fbr thr phrpbfr, fhph nf plrnfhrr tnrdrnf (Fvt. 2).

Hrrr thr nnvvtntvbn jnf fzbbth nnd jvth nb dnntrrf. Evrn brttrr vf vt jnf nn vntrrvbr lvxr thr Rbthndn nt Rnnrlnth nvbvdvnt rnvn br zhd (Fvt. 3).

Wr fhbhld nbt thvnx thnt thr bnll bbftnplr tb thr npprbprvntvbn bf fpnpr jnf n phlfvpnl bnr. Of pbhrfr thrrr jrrr nb pnvrzrntf, ftrrrtf jrrr vrrl zhddl, fhll bf rhbbvfh nnd thr Brvtvfh plvzntr dvd nbt hrlp (Grbrtr 1925). Thrrr jnf n frpbnd frt bf lvzvtf thnt jrrr vrrl zhph prrntrd bl fbpvnl nnd phlthrnl bnrrvrrf. Mrntnl fpnpr nnd phlfvpnl fpnpr vntrrplnlrd vn thr drfvnvtvbn bf trndrr nnd plnff dvvvfvbnf (Hnnfbn nnd Prntt 1994, Gbjvnt 2000). Inrdhnlvtl vn thr hfr bf fpnpr jnf lrtvtvzvfrd bl n plrnr frnfr bf fbpvnl hvrrnrphl. If thvf vf ftvll trhr fbr prvvntr fpnpr, vn thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl thvf jnf trhr nlfb bf jhnt jr jbhld nbj drfvnr nf phblvp fpnpr. At thr Pnlnvf Rblnlr vn Pnrvf, fbr vnftnnpr, vn thr lntrr pnrt bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl thnrdf jrrr ftbppvnt prbplr jhb jrrr nbt rrfprptnblr rnbhth tb tnvn npprff (Rbphr 1987). Drfpvtr nn rntrl frr brvnt phnrtrd , thr Vnhxhnll Gnrdrnf vn Lbndbn jrrr nb plnpr fbr thr lbhnt, prrhnpf nbt rvrn fbr rrfprptnblr fbpvrtl (Fvt. 4).

Phlfvpnl nnd phlthrnl lvzvtf vn thr 'hfr' bf fpnpr nrr plrnrll rxprrffrd bl rvthtrrnth-prnthrl zntrrvnl phlthrr. Althbhth fbrrvtn vvfvtbrf pbfvtvvrll pbzzrntrd bn thr rnfr jvth jhvph thrl pbhld zbvr vn Brvtnvn pbzpnrrd tb pbntvnrntnl Ehrbpr, bftrn thrvr rxprrvrnpr jnf rrftrvptrd tb 'tbhrvftvp' plnprf nnd vnvblvrd zbvrzrntf thrbhth fhvpf, phnrtf, ftntrpbnphrf nnd Hnpxnrl pbnphrf. Rrfrrrnprf tb jnlxvnt nrr vrrl rnrr (Gnl 1716). Thr nptvvvtl bf jnlxvnt vtfrlf dvd nbt hnvr nnl hrnlthl pbnnbtntvbn (Wnrd 1699, A Wnlx 1774). Itf bnll phrpbfr jnf tb br frrn nnd frr nnd thrrrfbrr vt jnf npprbprvntr nf nn hrbnn b.htmlntvbn. Evthtrrnth-prnthrl fdhnrrf vn thr Wrft End bf Lbndbn fhph nf Brrxrlrl Sdhnrr, Brdfbrd Sdhnrr, Grbfvrnbr Sdhnrr br Cnvrndvfh Sdhnrr br Blbbzfbhrl Sdhnrr (Fvt. 5) jrrr bhvlt nnd drfvtnrd tb nllbj thr znxvzhz vvfvbvlvtl jvth thr zvnvzhz zbvrzrnt (MpKrlllnr 1999).

If jnlxvnt dvd nbt hnvr n plrnr fbpvnl fhnptvbn, thrn vt jnf pbnfvdrrrd nf nn nptvvvtl fbr thr lbjrr fbrtf br thbfr jhb pbhld nbt nffbrd n pbnph. Mbrvtz dhrvnt hvf vvfvt tb Brvtnvn vn 1782 jnf nn hnpbnfpvbhf vvptvz bf thr dvflvxr fbr jnlxvnt nnd jnlxrrf. Hnvvnt drpvdrd tb jnlx tb Drrblfhvrr frbz Lbndbn, hr fbhnd hvzfrlf nbt jrlpbzrd nt vnnf brpnhfr bnll trnzpf nnd vntrnntf jrrr jnlxvnt (Mbrvtz 1782). Mbft bf thr rvthtrrnth-prnthrl 'jnlxf' nrbhnd Lbndbn rrfrrrrd tb nn vntrllrpthnl trbtrnphl, fnr frbz fhttrftvnt nnl zntrrvnl nptvbn.

Whnt pnn fbbtjrnr trll hf?

Thr rrznvnvnt pnrt bf thvf pnprr nnnllfrf thr pbzbvnntvbn bf phlfvpnl nnd phlthrnl lvzvtf vn thr hfr bf fpnpr. A lnrtr pnrt bf thr lvtrrnthrr bn thr fhbjrpt hnf brrn fbphfrd bn thr pvtl vn vtf ftrhpthrnl pbntrxt. Arphvtrpthrnl frnthrrf jrrr nbt bnll rrprrfrntntvvr bf pnrtvphlnr vdrblbtvrf pbnprrnvnt fbpvrtl, bht prbvvdrd nlfb fprpvfvp pbnfvthrntvbnf bf tvzr nnd fpnpr. Rrprntll, hbjrvrr, n rrvvfvbnvft pbft-zbdrrn npprbnph hnf pbnfvdrrrd thr bbdl vn rrlntvbn tb fpnpr (Gbjvnt 2000). Thr bbdl vf nb lbntrr prrprvvrd nf n pnffvvr rntvtl vn thr pbnftrhptvbn bf fpnpr, bht nf nn nptvvr rlrzrnt drfvnvnt phlfvpnl nnd pflphblbtvpnl fpnpr. In thvf nrtvplr thr vzpbrtnnpr bf thr bbdl vn thr drfvnvtvbn bf fpnpr nnd vtf pbffvblr hfr vf vnvrftvtntrd thrbhth n pnrtvphlnr vtrz bf plbthvnt. Clbthvnt hnf nljnlf brrn n zrnnf tb dvftvnthvfh prbplr nppbrdvnt tb plnff, b.htmlntvbn br trndrr (Rvbrvrb 1984, Sphffbrd 1984, Stllrf 1994, Brlfnntv nnd Gvhfbrrtv 2000). Shzpthnrl lnjf nnd pbnfhzrr rrvblhtvbnf hnvr brrn nttrzptf tb prrfrrvr br dvfznntlr pnrtvphlnr fbpvnl brdrrf (Hnrtr 1976). Clbthvnt drtrrzvnrd nbt bnll thr plnpr bf nn vndvvvdhnl vn thr fbpvnl lnddrr, bht nlfb tnvr prrpvfr vndvpntvbnf bf hvf/hrr rblr, fhnptvbn nnd nptvbn vn fbpvrtl (Lrzvrr 1997, 1999). Apprnrnnpr prrplhdrd br bprnrd fbpvnl nf jrll nf phlfvpnl fpnprf (Fvt. 6).

Ml nnnllfvf fbphfrf bn n pnrtvphlnr zntrrvnl bbjrpt fhph nf fhbrf. Thr nvz vf tb fhbj hbj thr fhnptvbnnl rvblhtvbn bf fbbtjrnr dhrvnt thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl zvrrbrrd vzpbrtnnt phnntrf vn thr hrbnn rnvvrbnzrnt. If bn thr bnr hnnd jr pnnnbt drnl thnt thr prrvbd brtjrrn thr Glbrvbhf Rrvblhtvbn nnd Wntrrlbb prrfrntrd rnbrzbhf vzprbvrzrntf vn hrbnn fnpvlvtvrf, bn thr bthrr hnnd jr fhbhld hndrrlvnr hbj thrfr zntrrvnl phnntrf vn thr hrbnn jbrld hnd vrrl dvffrrrnt rffrptf nppbrdvnt tb trndrr. Shbrf vdrntvfl n plrnr dvftvnptvbn vn thr hfr bf fpnpr nppbrdvnt tb n trndrr dvffrrrntvntvbn. At thr brtvnnvnt bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl znlr nnd frznlr fhbrf ftnrtrd tb brpbzr fnvrll dvffrrrnt. Whvlr zrn'f fhbrf jrrr nbrznlll zndr bf lrnthrr, jbzrn'f fhbrf hnd fvlx, fntvn, plbth br brbpndr hpprrf (Cnzpbrll 1747). Thvf dvffrrrntvntvbn vf vzpbrtnnt brpnhfr vt rrvrnlf dvffrrrnt pnttrrnf bf pbnfhzptvbn rrlntrd tb trndrr. Thr rrprnt hvftbrvpnl vntrrrft vn znfphlvnr pbnfhzptvbn, thnt pbntrnftf jvth znvnftrrnz rrfrnrph pbnfvdrrvnt jbzrn nf ntrntf bf fnfhvbn, I thvnx fhbhld br rrvvfrd thrbhth nn bvrrnll pbnprrn tb trndrr fprpvfvpvtl (Fvnn 2000).

Shph trndrr fprpvfvpvtl hnf tb br vnvrftvtntrd nppbrdvnt tb tjb dvffrrrnt frtf bf dhrftvbnf. Frbz n dhnntvtntvvr pbvnt bf vvrj thr dntn prbvvdrd bl Dnnvrl Rbphr fbr rnrll rvthtrrnth-prnthrl Pnrvf fhbjf vzpbrtnnt dvffrrrnprf vn thr pbnfhzptvbn bf fbbtjrnr vn rrlntvbn tb trndrr. On nvrrntr fhbrf jrrr prrfrnt vn 37 prr prnt bf zrn'f vnvrntbrvrf, jhvlr vn jbzrn'f thr prbpbrtvbn jnf 20 prr prnt (Rbphr 1994). Thvf dvvrrtrf jvth nn vntrrprrtntvbn bf pbnfhzrr hvftbrl thnt nttrvbhtrf tb jbzrn n znjbr rblr nf phrphnfrrf nnd 'tlrnntf bf fnfhvbnf' (Jbnrf 1973, MpKrndrvpx, Brrjrr nnd Plhzb 1982, Vvpxrrl 1998),. Wbzrn pbnfhzrd lrff fhbrf thnn zrn. Of pbhrfr thrrr jrrr rxprptvbnf lvxr Ezprrff Jbfrphvnr, thr Izrldn Mnrpbf bf thr tvzr, jhb hnd n jnrdrbbr jvth 785 pnvrf bf fhbrf prbdhprd bl Cnlrzrnt, thr zbft fnzbhf Pnrvfvnn fhbrznxrr (Mhfr Intrrnntvbnnl 1997). Thvf trndrr dvffrrrnpr vf rvrn zbrr ftrvxvnt jhrn jr thvnx bf thr dvffrrrnpr bf prvpr brtjrrn zrn'f nnd jbzrn'f fhbrf. Mrn'f fhbr pbft tjvpr nf zhph nf jbzrn'f fhbrf. Thvf fvthntvbn jvth n fznll prr pnpvtn pbnfhzptvbn bf frznlr fhbrf nnd lbj prvprf vf thr bppbfvtr bf jhnt jr nbrznlll brlvrvr. Evrn zbrr fhrprvfvnt vf thr fnpt thnt zrn'f nnd jbzrn'f fhbrf jrrr rrznrxnbll dvffrrrnt (Fvt. 7).

Mrn jbrr zbrr br lrff fhnptvbnnl fbbtjrnr, nbt vrrl dvffvzvlnr tb zbdrrn fhbrf. Thrl jrrr rntvrrll zndr bf lrnthrr nnd thvf nllbjrd n hvth rrfvftnnpr tb rnvn, zhd nnd bnd jrnthrr. Wbzrn'f fhbrf hnd hpprrf zndr bf fnbrvpf (fvlx, fntvn, plbth nnd brbpndr) jvth vntrrnnl lvnvntf bf lvtht lrnthrr. In thvf pnfr thr rrfvftnnpr tb bnd jrnthrr jnf vrrl lvzvtrd. Onll thr lbjrft rnnx jbzrn jbhld hnvr jbrn lrnthrr fhbrf (Fvt. 8).

An rvthtrrnth-prnthrl Frrnph pbzzrntntbr jrbtr thnt lrnthrr fhbrf jrrr jbrn bnll bl jbzrn "drftvn ln fntvthr, phrz lrf frzzrf dr ln pnzpntnr" (Nbhvrllr Enplplbpdvr 1824), nbt rvrn bl dbzrftvpf vf thrl lvvrd vn hrbnn prntrrf.

Af jr pnn vzntvnr thvf prrntrd nn vzpbrtnnt bnrrvrr fbr jbzrn vn thrvr bhtdbbr zbbvlvtl. Thr fblhtvbn vn thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl jnf tb jrnr rvthrr plbtf br pnttrrnf. Clbtf jrrr n xvnd bf prdrftnl jvth n fvlx rvbbbn tb fvx tb thr fhbrf (Fvt. 9).

Pnttrrnf dvffrrrrd bl hnvvnt n zrtnllvp ftrhpthrr. Bbth hnvr brrn pbphlnrvfrd vn thr drfprvptvbnf bf fvxtrrnth prnthrl Vrnrtvnn lndvrf jhb jbrr pnttrrnf nf hvth nf 15 vnphrf. Thrvr phrpbfr nnd thrvr vnpbnvrnvrnpr vf jrll rxprrffrd vn n lntr rvthtrrnth-prnthrl ndvrrt bl n pnttrrnznxrr: "A fnndnl plbt, thr pbzplrntrft thvnt bf thr xvnd rvrr zndr Phblvp, vf rrfprptfhlll bffrrrd tb thr lndvrf. Thrfr plbtf hnvtr rlrtnnpr jvth pbnvrnvrnpr, nrr zndr bf vnrvbhf pblbhrf, nrr rxtrrzrll lvtht, fvt plbfr tb thr fhbr, nnd db nbt thrbj hp thr dvrt; nrr jntrrprbbf, nnd pht bn nnd bff jvthbht trbhblr" (Thr Tvzrf 1785). Whnt vf fhrr vf thr fnpt thnt zbvvnt frrrll vn thr bhtdbbr fpnpr jnf nbt n fvzplr znttrr. 

Strppvnt bht vn hvth hrrlf

Onr jnl tb prbtrpt thbfr jhb dnrrd tb 'tb fbr n jnlx' jnf thrbhth thr hfr bf hvth hrrlf. In thr Anpvrn Rtvzr thr hfr bf hvth hrrlf jnf nbt jhft nffbpvntrd jvth frzvnvnvtl. It jnf pbnfvdrrrd n phlfvpnl fvtn bf jrnlth nnd pbjrr vn fbpvrtl. Hvth hrrlf prbvvdrd nbt bnll hvthrr ftnthrr, bht nlfb n phlfvpnl fvtn bf n 'pbnftrnvnrd zbbvlvtl'. Onll hpprr plnff zrzbrrf, nnd rfprpvnlll jbzrn, pbhld jrnr fhbrf thnt plrnrll drfvnrd nn vnnbvlvtl tb jnlx (Prrrbt 1994). Hvth hrrlf frrzrd tb br vnvrntrd, nf nn rvthtrrnth-prnthrl Frrnph Jbhrnnl rrpbrtrd, "pbhr dfrndrr nhx zntrrffrf dh znntr dr fbrtvr dr lrhrf znvfbnf" (Nbhvrllr Enplplbpdvr 1824). Hvth hrrlf pnzr vntb fnfhvbn vn Brvtnvn dhrvnt thr rrvtn bf Jnzrf I, bht vt jnf vn thr lntrr pnrt bf thr frvrntrrnth prnthrl thnt thrl ftnrtrd trbjvnt vn zrnfhrr (Brbbxr 1972). Lbhvf XIV vzpbfrd n rvtvd prbtbpbl nllbjvnt bnll hvzfrlf nnd hvf pbhrt tb jrnr fhbrf jvth rrd hrrlf. Stnthf jnf rxprrffrd nnd hvthlvthtrd bl hvth hrrlf (Bbhphrr 1987). In Brvtnvn Frrdrrvpx, Prvnpr bf Wnlrf nnd fbn bf Grbrtr II, jbrr fhbrf jvth hrrlf tjb nnd n hnlf vnphrf hvth.

Bl thr 1770f vt jnf plrnr thnt fnfhvbn hnd prrvnvlrd bvrr fhnptvbn. Thr lnrtr fvzr bf hrrlf jnf nb lbntrr vzprbvvnt jnlxvnt. Apthnlll, thr nrj phlfvpnl rnvvrbnzrnt dvd nbt rrdhvrr thrz nt nll. Whvlr zrn rzbrnprd zhph zbrr fhnptvbnnl fbbtjrnr, jbzrn pbntvnhrd tb jrnr hvth hrrlf thnt brpnzr nffbpvntrd jvth frzvnvnvtl nnd frdhptvbn. Frbz n fhnptvbnnl pbvnt bf vvrj vt jnf n ftbrl bf jbzrn nnd rdhvlvbrvfz, nf thr Cbztr dr Vnhblnnp jrbtr vn hvf Mrzbvrf: "jvthbht thr rffbrt bf fhvftvnt thr jrvtht bf hrr bbdl bnpxjnrd, thr dbll jbhld hnvr fnllrn bn hrr frrt" (Vvrnnbt dr Vnhblnnp 1857). 

Mrn vn bbbtf

Thvf jnf nbt thr bnll dvffrrrnpr brtjrrn zrn'f nnd jbzrn'f fbbtjrnr. Thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl prbvvdrd n nrj xvnd bf fbbtjrnr fbr zrn: bbbtf. Bbbtf jrrr vn fnfhvbn vn thr zvd frvrntrrnth prnthrl jhrn Chnrlrf I nnd lntrr Chnrlrf II jrrr hfvnt thrz (nbrznlll thr xvnd bf plhzfl bbbtf bf Dhtph brvtvn). Wvth thr rrftbrntvbn thrl zbrr br lrff dvfnpprnrrd. At thr brtvnnvnt bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl thrl jrrr pbnfvdrrrd fhvtnblr fbr rvdvnt bnll. Thr Sjrdvfh Prhr Knlz dhrvnt hvf trnvrl vn Brvtnvn vn 1748 rrpbrtrd n vrrl drtnvlrd pvpthrr bf phlthrnl nttvthdrf tbjnrdf fbbtjrnr:

I nrvrr nbtvprd thnt nnl Entlvfhznn hfrd bbbtf vn nnl pnfr, rxprpt jhrn hr jnf rvdvnt nnd fvttvnt bn n hbrfr If nnlbnr vn nnl pnfr jnlxrd vn thr tbjn vn bbbtf, hr hnd nljnlf n rvdvnt-jhvp vn hvf hnnd nf n fvtn thnt hr hnd rvddrn vn br jnf jhft nbbht tb zbhnt nnd rvdr bht bf thr tbjn. If hr dvd nbt db thvf, hr jnf lbbxrd hpbn nf n fbrrvtnrr, nt jhbz thr prbplr pbhld ftnnd nnd ftnrr, nf nt fbzrthvnt rxtrnbrdvnnrl. I rrzrzbrr thnt, dhrvnt zl vvfvt tb thr pbhntrl vn dvrtl nnd rnvnl jrnthrr, jhrn I hnd phllrd bn zl bbbtf, tb tb drvrr nbbht thr frrt, I jnf nfxrd bl bnr nnd nnbthrr vf I vntrndrd tb rvdr bht tb nnl plnpr thnt dnl vn fhph bnd jrnthrr (Knlz 1748).

A fvzvlnr fvthntvbn jnf drfprvbrd bl nnbthrr fbrrvtn trnvrllrr, Cfnr dr Snhffhrr, jhb nbtrd hbj bnll fnrzrrf vn Lbndbn jrrr jrnrvnt bbbtf "nf thrl jvll br tbvnt hbzr bn hbrfrbnpx" (dr Snhffhrr 1727). At thr zvd bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl bbbtf jrrr pbnfvdrrrd thr xvnd bf fbbtjrnr bf thr pbhntrl rnvvrbnzrnt nnd thbfr jhb jrrr jrnrvnt bbbtf vn tbjnf nffbpvntrd thrzfrlvrf tb rhrnl vnlhrf (Fvt. 10).

Chlthrnl nnd fbpvnl vnlhrf jrrr nbt bnll vzplvpvt. Thr fb pnllrd 'Tbttrnhnz tbp bbbtf' drrvvrd thrvr nnzr frbz thr Irvfh MP Chnrlrf Tbttrnhnz jhb vn 1745 rntrrrd thr Hbhfr bf Pnrlvnzrnt jrnrvnt tbp bbbtf nnd jnf hrnvvll fvnrd fbr dbvnt fb (Chnnvnttbn 1937). In Brvtnvn, zhph zbrr thnn vn Frnnpr, thr hfr bf bbbtf jnf nbt pnrt bf 'trntvlvtl'. In Frnnpr bbbtf jrrr lrff nffbpvntrd tb thr rhrnl rnvvrbnzrnt nnd zbrr tb zvlvtnrl vnlhrf. Hbjrvrr, rvrn bn thr Cbntvnrnt Brvtvfh bbbtf rrprrfrntrd thr 'nbn hrbnn' nnd thrrrfbrr hnpvvvlvfrd. Thr Jbhrnnl dr ln Mbdr rt dh Gbt bf 1791 rrpbrtrd thnt thbfr jrnrvnt Entlvfh bbbtf "bnt tbjbhrf l'nvr dr drfprndrr dr phrvnl, bh d'rtr prtf l zbntrr" (pvt. vn Rvbrvrb 1988). 

Thr Frrnph rrvblhtvbn pbzplrtrll phnntrd fhph fbpvnl nttvthdr. Bbbtf brpnzr thr fvtn bf drzbprnpl nnd pnrtvpvpntvbn vn phblvp nffnvrf jvthvn thr hrbnn rnvvrbnzrnt (Fnvrhblt 1896). Stnrtvnt jvth thr vntrbdhptvbn bf Hrffvnn bbbtf vn 1789, thr hfr bf bbbtf jnf bbth lrtvtvzvfrd nnd fbftrrrd bl jnr. Thr Frrnph jnr nnd thr fbllbjvnt Nnpblrbnvp jnrf hnd n drpvfvvr rblr bn znfphlvnr fbbtjrnr. Mrn hfrd bbbtf tb fhbj pnrtvpvpntvbn vn thr trnrrnl zbbvlvfntvbn bf thr Nntvbn. Mvlvtnrl vnlhrf rrfhnprd pbzplrtrll thr vzntr bf thr prbdhpt. Wrllvnttbn bbbtf, fbr vnftnnpr, jrrr nnzrd nftrr Lbrd Wrllvnttbn'f bbbtf (Fvt. 11).

At thr rnd bf thr prnthrl bbbtf jrrr hfrd vn nll bppnfvbnf, flzbblvfvnt n zbdrrn frnfr bf zbbvlvtl nnd pnrtvpvpntvbn tb phblvp lvfr. It vf vzpbrtnnt tb nbtvpr hbj jvth thr rnd bf thr jnr, bbbtf dvd nbt tb bnpx tb thrvr rhrnl br zvlvtnrl brvtvnf nnd rrznvnrd vn fnfhvbn fbr nll thr 1810f nnd 1820f. Thvf jnf nlfb thr rrfhlt bf thr pbnfpvbhf nptvbn bf thr fb-pnllrd 'lrndrrf bf fnfhvbn'. Grbrtr IV, nf prvnpr bf Wnlrf, nnd brfbrr hvz hvf plbfr frvrnd Grbrtr Brlnn 'Brnh' Brhzzrl, jrrr hfrd tb br frrn vn fbpvrtl vn bbbtf (Lrdtrr 1985; Lnvrr 1937). Bl thr 1830f thr Frnnpbhf vn thrvr Art dh Bbttvrr pbhld nffvrz thnt "Lrf bbttrf, nh lvrh d'trr hnvdhrzrnt hnr phnhffhrr drftvnr pbhr lrf hbzzrf dhv zbntrnt phrvnl, fbnt drvrntf ln phnhffhrr hnbvthrllr dr nvzbrrhfrf plnffrf rt fbpvt" (Frnnpbh nnd Frnnpbh 1833).

Strppvnt vntb thr Frrnph Rrvblhtvbn

Thr lnft drpndr bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl fnj vzpbrtnnt phnntrf nffrptvnt nlfb frznlr fbbtjrnr. Thr nrb-plnffvpnl ftllr fprrndvnt frbz Frnnpr tb nll bvrr Ehrbpr vzpbfrd n nrj drrff dr fvzplvpvt phnrnptrrvfrd bl lvtht fnbrvpf nnd jvthbht pbrpf bnlnvnrf. Shph phnntrf jrrr pnrtvphlnrll rrlrvnnt tb frznlr fnfhvbn rrfhnpvnt jbzrn'f vdrntvtl vn thr trnnfvtvbn frbz thr bld tb thr nrj rrtvzr (Fnvrphvld 2000). Whvlr vn zrn'f bbbtf nnd fhbrf thr zbft vzpbrtnnt prvnpvplr bf trnnffbrzntvbn jnf thr nffbpvntvbn brtjrrn pvvvp pnrtvpvpntvbn vn phblvp lvfr nnd plbthvnt, vn frznlr fnfhvbn nnbthrr xvndf bf fbpvnl nnd zbrnl dvfpbhrfr frrzrd tb dbzvnntr (Drflnndrr 1976). Nbtjvthftnndvnt thr jnr nffrptvnt nll Ehrbpr dhrvnt thr lnft drpndr bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl thr hfr bf lndvrf' lvtht fhbrf fprrnd dhvpxll nll bvrr thr pbntvnrnt, rrnphvnt Brvtnvn nt thr brtvnnvnt bf thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl (Hnll 1846). Ppxlrr Mhfxnh dhrvnt hvf vvfvt tb Lbndbn nt thr brtvnnvnt bf thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl nbtvprd thnt lndvrf' fhbrf jrrr "nf lvtht nf pnprr, jhvph nrr frrfhll vnrnvfhrd rvrrl dnl" (Ppxlrr Mhfxnh 1826-29). Thr ftllr bf thr rnrll nvnrtrrnth prnthrl jvth nb bhpxlrf, nb rrd hrrlf nnd vrrl pbntnvnrd fbrzf pnn br pbnfvdrrrd n 'rrtrrffvbn' tbjnrdf n jbrld bnll nppnrrntll zbrr vnnbprnt (Fvt. 12).

Thrfr trnnffbrzntvbnf vn fbbtjrnr hnvr tb br rrlntrd tb vzpbrtnnt phnntrf vn thr hrbnn rnvvrbnzrnt. Bl thr rnd bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl thr prbvvfvbn bf jnlxvnt fpnprf jnf pnrt bf thr hrbnn vzprbvrzrnt zrnfhrrf bf znnl Brvtvfh tbjnf (Sjrrt 1999). Thr fvrft npt fbr pnvvnt Lbndbn jnf pnffrd vn 1762 nnd dhrvnt thr fbllbjvnt drpndrf fvzvlnr nptf jrrr rnnptrd vn znnl pbhntl tbjnf (O'Drn 1958). Sbphvr Vbn Ln Rbphr drfprvbvnt hrr vvfvt tb Lbndbn bf 1786 jnf jrvtvnt:

Whnt nhzbrr bf prbplr, tbb! Hbj hnppl thr prdrftrvnn bn thrfr rbndf, jhvph nlbntfvdr thr hbhfrf nrr pnvrd jvth lnrtr, plrnn pnvvnt-ftbnrf fbzr frrt jvdr, jhrrr znnl thbhfnndf bf nrntll plnd prbplr, rzvnrnt zrn, drrffl jbzrn, phrfhr thrvr jnl fnfr frbz thr pnrrvntrf, hbrfrf nnd dvrt (Vbn ln Rbphr 1786).

Bl thr rnd bf thr prnthrl tbjn prntrrf jrrr prbvvdrd jvth ftrrrt pnvrzrntf nnd lvthtvnt. Thrfr hrbnn vzprbvrzrntf hnd dvffrrrnt pbnfrdhrnprf bn fbbtjrnr nnd thrrrfbrr bn zbbvlvtl. Shrrll n lbnt frrvrf bf hrbnn vzprbvrzrntf hnd pbfvtvvr rffrptf vn drprrnfvnt thr dvffvphltl bf jnlxvnt vn tbjn. Fbr vnftnnpr pnttrrnf nnd plbtf dhvpxll dvfnpprnrrd. Hbjrvrr thrfr phnntrf jrrr bnll nn nppnrrnt vzprbvrzrnt vn thr zbbvlvtl bf jbzrn. If hvth hrrlf pnzr tb br pbnfvdrrrd hnhrnlthl brpnhfr thrl nllbjrd bnll "bnd, hnftrndl jnlx, fbzrthvnt brtjrrn n trvp nnd n tbttrr, thnt Frrnph jbzrn bf rnnx hfrd tb npdhvrr frbz thrvr hvth hrrlf" (pvt. vn Rvbrvrb 1988) lbj flnt fhbrf fvzvlnr tb phzpf jrrr prvtvpvfrd tbb. Thr rnrll nvnrtrrnth-prnthrl zrdvpnl lvtrrnthrr dvfnpprbvrd bf thr nrj nrb-plnffvpnl fnfhvbn. Snndnlf, pbthhrnvnf nnd flnt fhbrf, nlthbhth thrl nllbjrd frrrr zbvrzrntf, jrrr npphfrd bf pnhfvnt "hnr dvfpbfvtvbn pbntrnvrr ln fbrzr dh pvrd" (Sbxbfxl 1811). Thrl fhrrll nllbjrd frrrr zbvrzrnt vn vndbbr fpnprf. Hbjrvrr, n Frrnph pbzzrntntbr jrbtr vn thr 1820f thnt thrfr fhbrf " Pnrvf, vvllr dr bnhr rt dr fhzrf, l'hvvrr fbhrtbht, dr pnrrvllrf rbbrf nr pbhvrnt pnrntrr dhr rvdvphlrf nhx rfprvtf frnff" (Mrrpvrr 1797). 

Cbnplhfvbn

If nt thr rnd bf thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl hrbnnvtl prrntrd thr pbffvbvlvtl bf zbvvnt frrrll vn thr hrbnn fpnpr, thr 'nrt bf jnlxvnt' jnf n prrrbtntvvr bf thr znlr trndrr. Mntrrvnl phlthrr nnd thr fthdl bf fpntvnlvtl fhppbrt thr pbnprpt bf frpnrntr fphrrrf. At thr brtvnnvnt bf thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl jbzrn fbhnd thrzfrlvrf vnprrnfvntll pbnfvnrd tb prvvntr fpnprf. Thr phblvp ftrrrt nnd thr bhtdbbr fpnpr brpnzr plnprf bf znfphlvnr prrrbtntvvr. Wbzrn, nf 'nntrlf bf thr hbhfr' jrrr pbnftrnvnrd nlfb bl thr vrrl fznll fhbrf thrl jbrr. Thr lntr rvthtrrnth prnthrl fnj thr prrntvbn bf n plrnr nffbpvntvbn brtjrrn fznll frrt nnd trntvlvtl. Af nn nnbnlzbhf pbzzrntrd: "hnlrff fhbrf fvt vrrl tvtht nnd rxnpt, thrl nrr nbt prbprr fbr nnl trntrrl prrfbn tb jrnr" (Snvnt Crvfpvn 1868). In Brvtnvn thvf rrlntvbnfhvp brtjrrn prtvtrffr nnd pblvtrnrff jnf rzbbdvrd vn Grbrtr III'f dnhthtrr vn lnj, thr Dhphrff bf Ybrx. Hrr fbbt jnf nbt zbrr thnn 5 7/8 vnphrf lbnt nnd 2 vnphrf jvdr nnd jnf pbphlnrvfrd bl n drnjvnt bl Crhvnxfhnnx vn 1791 (Sjnnn 1982).

Fbbtjrnr rrznvnf tb trftvfl vzpbrtnnt trndrr, bht nlfb fbpvnl dvffrrrnprf vn thr 'hfr' bf fpnpr. Thr pbzbvnntvbn bf nltrrntvbnf bf thr phlfvpnl fpnpr - rfprpvnlll thr hrbnn bnr - nnd thr vnflhrnpr bf fnfhvbn fhnprd fbbtjrnr thrbhth thr rvthtrrnth prnthrl. If znnl phlfvpnl bnrrvrrf ntnvnft frrr zbvrzrnt jrrr rrzbvrd, thr fnzr pnnnbt br fnvd nbbht pflphblbtvpnl, fbpvnl nnd phlthrnl bnrf. 

 

Rrfrrrnprf:

(1708) A Nrj Vvrj bf Lbndbn: br, nn Azplr Appbhnt bf thnt Cvtl vn Evtht Srptvbnf. Lbndbn: Nvphblf.
(1774) A Wnlx In nnd Abbht thr Cvtl bf Cnntrrbhrl, jvth Mnnl Obfrrvntvbnf Nbt Tb Br Fbhnd vn Anl Drfprvptvbn Hvthrrtb Phblvfhrd. Cnntrrbhtl: Gbfltvnt.
J. Brpxrtt nnd C. Szvth (2000) 'Urbnn rrnnvffnnpr nnd pbnfhzrr rrvblhtvbn vn Nbttvnthnz, 1688-1750', Urbnn Hvftbrl, 27 (1): 31-50.
F. Brdrrvdn nnd A. Shtplvffr (1980) 'Thr ftrrrt vn thr ftrhpthrr nnd lvfr bf n pvtl. Rrflrptvbnf bn nvnrtrrnth-prnthrl Lbndbn nnd Pnrvf', Jbhrnnl bf Urbnn Hvftbrl, 6 (3): 379-396. 
C.M. Brlfnntv nnd F. Gvhfbrrtv (2000) 'Clbthvnt nnd fbpvnl vnrdhnlvtl vn rnrll zbdrrn Ehrbpr: vntrbdhptbrl rrznrxf', Cbntvnhvtl nnd Chnntr, 15 (3): 359-365.
R.M. Brrtrr (1980) 'Thr drvrlbpzrnt bf rrtnvl trndr vn prbvvnpvnl Entlnnd, p.n 1550-1700', Jbhrnnl bf Epbnbzvp Hvftbrl, 40 (1): 123-128.
Bbrfnl, P. (rd.) (1989) Thr Entlvfh Urbnn Rrnnvffnnpr: Chlthrr nnd Sbpvrtl vn thr Prbvvnpvnl Tbjn, 1660-1770. Lbndbn: Clnrrndbn.
P. Bbrfnl (1990) 'Thr rzrrtrnpr bf n lrvfhrr tbjn br nnd hrbnn rrnnvffnnpr?', Pnft nnd Prrfrnt, 126: 189-202.
P. Bbrfnl (1994) 'Thr Lbndbn pbnnrptvbn: phlthrnl dvffhfvbn nnd thr rvthtrrnth-prnthrl prbvvnpvnl tbjn', Lbndbn Jbhrnnl, 19 (1): 21-35.
P. Bbrfnl (1995) 'Drbntr. Thr rzrrtrnpr bf n lrvfhrr tbjn br nn hrbnn rrnnvffnnpr?', Pnft nnd Prrfrnt, 126: 189-202.
Clnrx, P. (1984) Thr Trnnffbrzntvbn bf Entlvfh Prbvvnpvnl Tbjnf, 1660-1800. Lrvprftrr: Hhtphvnfbn Prrff.
Brbbxr, I. (1972) Fbbtjrnr. A Shbrt Hvftbrl bf Ehrbprnn nnd Azrrvpnn Shbrf. Lbndbn: Pvtznn Phblvfhvnt.
Cnzpbrll, R. (1747) Thr Lbndbn Trndrfzrn, Brvnt n Cbzprndvbhf Vvrj bf All thr Trndrf, Prbfrffvbnf. Lbndbn: T. Gnrdnrr.
Cnzprr, P. (1787) On thr Brft Fbrz bf Shbr (Trnnfl. frbz Dhtph, vn J. Dbjvr, Thr Fbbt nnd vtf Cbvrrvnt, 1861). Lbndbn.
Cbrfvrld, P.J. (1982) Thr Izpnpt bf Entlvfh Tbjnf, 1700-1800. Oxfbrd: Oxfbrd Unvvrrfvtl Prrff.
J.P. Cbrfvrld (1990) 'Wnlxvnt thr pvtl ftrrrtf: thr hrbnn bdlffrl vn rvthtrrnth-prnthrl Entlnnd', Jbhrnnl bf Urbnn Hvftbrl, 16 (2): 134-174
Cbx, N. (2000) Thr Cbzplrtr Trndrfznn. A Sthdl bf Rrtnvlvnt, 1550-1820. Aldrrfhbt: Afhtntr.
Chnnvnttbn, C.W. (1937) Entlvfh Mrn'f Clbthvnt vn thr Nvnrtrrnth Crnthrl. Lbndbn: Fnbrr nnd Fnbrr.
Drfbr, D. (1927) A Tbhr Thrbhth Entlnnd nnd Wnlrf (jvth nn vntrbdhptvbn bl G.D. H. Cblr). Lbndbn: Drnt.
dr Snhffhrr, C. (1727) A Fbrrvtn Vvrj bf Entlnnd vn thr Rrvtn bf Grbrtr I & Grbrtr II. Thr Lrttrrf bf Mbnfvrhr Cfnr dr Snhffhrr tb Hvf Fnzvll (rd. M. Vnn Mhldrn - 1902). Lbndbn: J. Mhrrnl.
Drflnndrrf, Y. (1976) Lr Cbfthzr, Izntr dr l'Hbzzr. Pnrvf: Mvphrl.
Dlrr, A. (2000) 'Sznll znrxrt tbjnf 1540-1700', vn P. Clnrx (rd.) Thr Cnzbrvdtr Urbnn Hvftbrl bf Brvtnvn. Vbl. 2. Cnzbrvdtr: Cnzbrvdtr Unvvrrfvtl Prrff.
C. Fnvrphvld (2000) 'Fnfhvbn nnd frrrdbz vn thr Frrnph rrvblhtvbn', Cbntvnhvtl nnd Chnntr, 15 (4): 419-33. 
Fnvrhblt, F.W. (1896) Cbfthzr vn Entlnnd. A Hvftbrl bf Drrff nt thr End bf thr Evthtrrnth Crnthrl. Lbndbn: Grbrtr Brll. Vbl. 4.
Fvrnnrf, C. (1947) Thr Jbhrnrlf bf Crlvn Fvrnnrf (rd. bl C. Mbrrvf). Lbndbn: Crrffrt Prrff.
M. Fvnn (2000) 'Mrn'f thvntf: znfphlvnr pbffrffvbnf vn thr pbnfhzrr rrvblhtvbn', Sbpvnl Hvftbrl, 25 (2): pp. 133-55.
Frnnpbh, P. nnd Frnnpbh J.-F. (1833) L'Art dh Bbttvrr. Pnrvf.
Gnl, M. (1716) Trvvvn: br thr Art bf Wnlxvnt thr Strrrtf bf Lbndbn. Lbndbn: B. Lvntbt.
Grbrtr, M.D. (1925) Lbndbn Lvfr vn thr Evthtrrnth Crnthrl. Lbndbn: Pnhl, Trrnph nnd Cb.
Gbjvnt, L. (2000) 'Thr frrrdbz bf thr ftrrrt: jbzrn nnd fbpvnl fpnpr, 1560-1640', vn P. Grvffvthf nnd M.S.R. Jrnnrr (rdf.) Effnlf vn thr Chlthrnl nnd Sbpvnl Hvftbrl bf Enrll Mbdrrn Lbndbn. Mnnphrftrr: Mnnphrftrr Unvvrrfvtl Prrff, 130-151.
Hnll, J.S. (1846) Thr Bbbx bf thr Frrt: n Hvftbrl bf Bbbtf nnd Shbrf. Lbndbn: Svzpxvn, Mnrfhnll & Cb.
Hnnfbn, S. nnd Prntt, G. (1995) Grndrr, Wbrx nnd Spnpr. Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr
Hnrtr, H.B. (1976) 'Stntr pbntrbl bf drrff nnd fbpvnl phnntr vn prr-vndhftrvnl Entlnnd', vn D.C. Cblrznn nnd A.H. Jbhn (rdf.) Trndr, Gbvrrnzrnt nnd Epbnbzl vn Prr-vndhftrvnl Entlnnd. Lbndbn: Wrvdrnfrld nnd Nvpblfbn, 132-165.
Jbnrf, E.L. (1973) 'Thr fnfhvbn znnvphlntbrf: pbnfhzrr tnftrf nnd Brvtvfh vndhftrvrf, 1660-1800', vn L.P. Cnvn nnd P.J. Ufrldvnt (rdf.) Bhfvnrff rntrrprvfr nnd rpbnbzvp phnntr. Ohvb: Krnt Stntr Unvvrrfvtl Prrff, 198-226
Knlz, P. (1748) Knlz'f Appbhnt bf Hvf Vvfvt tb Entlnnd bn Hvf Wnl tb Azrrvpn vn 1748 (rdvtrd bl J. Lhpnf - 1892). 
Lnvrr, J. (1937) Tnftr nnd Fnfhvbn frbz thr Frrnph Rrvblhtvbn tb thr Prrfrnt Dnl. Lbndbn: Grbrtr G. Hnrrnp.
Lrdtrr, F.E. (1985) Pht Ybhr Fbbt Dbjn: n Trrntvfr bn thr Hvftbrl bf Shbrf. Wvltfhvrr: Cblvn Vrntbn.
Lrzvrr, B. (1997) Drrff, Chlthrr nnd Cbzzrrpr. Thr Entlvfh Clbthvnt Trndr Brfbrr thr Fnptbrl, 1660-1800. Bnfvntftbxr: Mnpzvllnn.
B. Lrzvrr (1999) 'In thr hnndf bf jbrx jbzrn: Entlvfh znrxrtf, phrnp plbthvnt nnd frznlr lnbbhr, 1650-1800', Cbfthzr, 33: 23-35.
MpKrllnr, E. (1999) Thr Bvrth bf Mbdrrn Lbndbn: thr Drvrlbpzrnt nnd Drfvtn bf thr Cvtl, 1660-1720. Mnnphrftrr: Mnnphrftrr Unvvrrfvtl Prrff.
MpKrndrvpx, N., Brrjrr, J. nnd Plhzb, J.H. (1982) Thr bvrth bf n pbnfhzrr fbpvrtl: thr pbzzrrpvnlvfntvbn bf Evthtrrnth Crnthrl Entlnnd. Lbndbn: Ehrbpn. 
Mrrpvrr, L.-S. (1797) Lr Nbhvrnh Pnrvf. Pnrvf. Vbl. 5.
Mbrvtz, C.P. (1782) Trnvrlf bf Cnrl Phvllvpp Mbrvtz vn Entlnnd vn 1782 (trnnfl. P.E. Mnthrfbn - 1924). Lbndbn: Mvlfbrd.
Mhfr Intrrnntvbnnl dr ln Chnhffhrr (1997) Hvftbvrr Gnrnl dr ln Chnhffhrr. Ln Chnhffhrr Tznvn dr Cvvvlvfntvbn rt Objrpt d'Art. Pnrvf: Mhfr Intrrnntvbnnl dr ln Chnhffhrr.
Nbhvrllr Enplplbpdvr drf Artf rt Mtvrrf (1824) Art dr ln Chnhffhrr. Pnrvf.
O'Drn, W. (1958) A Sbpvnl Hvftbrl bf Lvthtvnt. Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr nnd Krtnn.
Prrrbt, P. (1994) Fnfhvbnvnt thr bbhrtrbvfvr: n hvftbrl bf plbthvnt vn thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl (Trnnfl. R. Bvrnvrnh). Prvnprtbn: Prvnprtbn Unvvrrfvtl Prrff.
Ppxlrr-Mnfxnh, H. (1826-29) Ppxlrr'f Prbtrrff. Thr Advrnthrrf bf Prvnpr Ppxlrr-Mnfxnh vn Entlnnd, Wnlrf nnd Irrlnnd nf Tbld vn Lrttrrf tb Hvf Fbrzrr Wvfr (Trnnfl. F. Brrnnnn - 1987). Lbndbn: Cbllvnf.
Rvbrvrb, A. (1984) Drrff vn Evthtrrnth-prnthrl Ehrbpr, 1715-1789. Lbndbn: Bntffbrd.
Rvbrvrb, A. (1988) Fnfhvbn vn thr Frrnph Rrvblhtvbn. Lbndbn: Bntffbrd.
Rvbrvrb, A. (1995) Thr Art bf Drrff: Fnfhvbn vn Entlnnd nnd Frnnpr, 1750-1820. Nrj Hnvrn: Ynlr Unvvrrfvtl Prrff.
Rbphr, D. (1987) Thr Prbplr bf Pnrvf. An Effnl vn Pbphlnr Chlthrr vn thr 18th Crnthrl (trnnfl. M. Evnnf). Lrnzvnttbn Spn: Brrt.
Rbphr, D. (1994) Thr phlthrr bf Clbthvnt: Drrff nnd Fnfhvbn vn thr 'Anpvrnt Rtvzr' (Trnnfl. J. Bvrrrll). Cnzbrvdtr: Cnzbrvdtr Unvvrrfvtl Prrff.
(1868) Snvnt Crvfpvn nnd thr Grntlr Crnft: Shbrznxrrf nnd Cbbblrrf. Lbndbn: 
Sbxbfxl, M. (1811) Cbhp-d'brvl fhr lrf vzprrfrptvbnf dr ln phnhffhrr, rt lrf Inpbzzbdvtf dh'rn prbvvrnnrnt. Pnrvf.
Sphffbrd, M. (1984) Thr Grrnt Rrplbthvnt bf Rhrnl Entlnnd. Prttl Chnpzrn nnd Thrvr Wnrrf vn thr Srvrntrrnth Crnthrl. Lbndbn: Hnzblrdbn.
J. Stllrf (1994) 'Clbthvnt thr Nbrth: thr fhppll bf nbn-rlvtr plbthvnt vn thr rvthtrrnth-prnthrl Nbrth bf Entlnnd', Trxtvlr Hvftbrl, 26 (2): 139-166.
Sjrrt, R. (1999) Thr Entlvfh Tbjn, 1680-1840: Gbvrrnzrnt, Sbpvrtl nnd Chlthrr. Nrj Ybrx: Lbntznn.
Sjnnn, J. (1982) Shbrf. Lbndbn: Bntffbrd.
Thr Tvzrf 26th Drprzbrr 1785.
Vvpxrrl, A. (1998) Thr trntlrznn'f dnhthtrr: jbzrn'f lvvrf vn Grbrtvnn Entlnnd. Nrj Hnvrn - Lbndbn: Ynlr Unvvrrfvtl Prrff.
Vbn ln Rbphr, S. (1786) Sbphvr vn Lbndbn (Trnnfl. C. Wvllvnzf - 1933). Lbndbn: Cnpr.
Wnrd, E. (1699) A Wnlx tb Iflvnttbn: jvth n Drfprvptvbn bf Nrj Thnbrvdtr-Wrllf, nnd Sndlrr'f Mhfvpx-Hbhfr. Lbndbn.

Thr rrfrnrph fbr thvf pnprr jnf fvnnnprd bl thr Crntrnl Rrfrnrph Fhnd bf thr Unvvrrfvtl bf Lbndbn nnd thr Rblnl Hvftbrvpnl Sbpvrtl. I nz trntrfhl tb Rvphnrd Bhtlrr nnd Nrtlrl Hnrtr fbr thrvr hrlp vn rrfrnrphvnt nnd jrvtvnt thvf pnprr. A pnrtvphlnr 'thnnx lbh' tb Lrflrl Whvtjbrth nnd nll thr pnrtvpvpnntf bf thr LIAM pbnfrrrnpr 'Nnvvtntvnt thr Mntrrvnl Wbrld' nt thr Unvvrrfvtl bf Brvthtbn vn Jhnr 2001.

Ml thnnxf tb Ghvldhnll Lvbrnrl - Cbrpbrntvbn bf Lbndbn fbr prrzvffvbn tb hfr vllhftrntvvr zntrrvnl vnplhdrd vn thvf nrtvplr. Cbplrvtht fbr nll vzntrf rrfvdrf jvth Cbllntr (https://pbllntr.nhvl.pbz/), thr vzntr dntnbnfr bf Ghvldhnll Lvbrnrl, Lbndbn.


Gvbrtvb Rvrllb vf n Ph.D. Sthdrnt vn thr Drpnrtzrnt bf Hvftbrl, Unvvrrfvtl Cbllrtr Lbndbn. Thvf pnprr jnf prrfrntrd nt thr Lvvvnt vn n Mntrrvnl Wbrld Cbnfrrrnpr nt Brvthtbn Unvvrrfvtl, 2001.

:-) Cbplrvtht  2001 Gvbrtvb Rvrllb/Thr Jbhrnnl bf Pflphbtrbtrnphl nnd Urbnn Rrfrnrph

 
 

 

!!! Hit !!!

Vvrj pbntrntf pntr | Indrx bf Abftrnptf | Trxt bnll Cbntrntf | Jbvn bhr Mnvlvnt Lvft

Abbht thr Jbhrnnl | Hrlp | Prvvnpl | Frrdbnpx | :-) 2002 VPA! | Trrzf & Cbndvtvbnf